If there is one term that typifies D'varim, it is "transition" - or "avor" in Hebrew, stemming from the root. e.v.r, (ayin, vet/bet, resh) meaning to "traverse, cross over, pass by or through, transgress, get angry/cross, other side, for the sake of and fords, or passageway," being also the root for the word “Hebrew.” This term, with some of those derivatives, shows up many times in Parashat Va’etchanan, which is why we will follow it not only there, but also throughout the book of Dvarim (Deuteronomy). This excursion will also provide an opportunity to observe, once again, patterns of the Hebrew mindset and the compactness of the language, as well as the mutual effect of thought and language on each other. We will see how “avor” lends D’varim its special character, and in turn how it expresses the calling of the People of Yisrael.
In Sh'mot (Exodus) the Hebrews passed over from one state of existence (slavery) to another (freedom and redemption) as well as to a new geographical location, by crossing the
. Here, in
Dvarim, they are about to experience another crossing. This time it is the
Yarden, which is to become the passageway that will lead them to the land promised
them by YHVH. They will, once again, go through a change of status, ceasing to
be nomads. In the past we have noted that "Hebrews"-
"Ivrim" - are those who are destined for transitions of one form or
another. This group of people is seen here (and throughout Scripture)
fulfilling this very destiny, already alluded to by the name of their
progenitor Ever (Eber, Gen. 11:14,15) mentioned five generations before
Avraham, whose name they bore. However,
nowhere is the "passing" or "crossing" – designated by
e.v.r - more evident than in D'varim, where the term is used in several
connotations, forming, as it were, a series of milestones that enable us to
follow the Israelites through their journeys and transitions as depicted in
this book. Sea
Already in Dvarim’s opening verse we see Moshe addressing "all
Israel on the side of the – Ever
ha'Yarden" (1:1 italics added). Ever (vowel sounds like “essence”)
is "crossed side or other side," thus rendering the land
on the Yarden's eastern shore, "Ever haYarden." It was also at "Ever ha'Yarden"
where Moshe "began to explain the Torah" (1:5). Sometime later
Yehoshua (Joshua) reminds the Israelites of another "ever" - the place where their forefathers came from,
saying: "Thus says YHVH
the Elohim of Israel: `Your fathers Terah, the father of Abraham and the father
of Nahor, dwelt on the other side [ever] of the River in
old times; and they served other gods. Then I took your father Abraham from the
other side [ever] of the River, led him throughout all the
Jordan , and multiplied his descendants
and gave him Isaac'" (Josh. 24:2,3 italics and emphasis added). land of Canaan
In recounting the wilderness journey and its adventures, Moshe says, "We came through [a'va'rnu] the nations which you passed by [a'va'rtem]… "(Deut. 29:16 italics added). About these nations, he made earlier comments, recalling YHVH’s words to him: "You are passing [ovrim] by the border of your brothers, the sons of Esau" (2:4). And as to the actual event: "And we passed [va'na'vor] and turned beyond our brother the sons of Esau… and we passed [va'na'vor] by way of the Wilderness of Moab" (2:8). “And the time we took to come from Kadesh Barnea until we crossed over [avarnu] the Valley of the Zered was thirty-eight years, until all the generation of the men of war was consumed from the midst of the camp, just as YHVH had sworn to them" (2:14). Although the wording here appears to be recounting technical details, it captures the tragedy that the Israelites brought upon themselves - the passing on of an entire generation. Preceding the crossing of this river (Zered), YHVH exhorted the Israelites: “Now rise up, and go over [e’e’vru] the river Zered! And we went over [va’na’avor] the river Zered” (2:13, italics added).
The next “crossing over" [o-ver in Hebrew] (2:18) was through the
and Ammon, that
according to YHVH's word was not to be trampled. But the command to "cross
[e’e’vru]" the River Arnon, was different! The territory
of Moav ,
the Amorite king, was to come under Yisrael's dominion. The Amorites ignored
the message, "Let me pass through [e'ebra] your land; I will
keep strictly to the road, and I will turn neither to the right nor to the
left. You shall sell me food for money, that I may eat, and give me water for
money, that I may drink; only let me pass through [e'ebra] on
foot, just as the descendants of Esau who dwell in Seir and the Moabites who
dwell in Ar did for me, until I cross [e'evor] the Jordan to the
land which YHVH our Elohim is giving us" (2:27,28 italics added). Instead,
"Sihon king of Heshbon would not let us pass through
[ha'a'virenu]" (v. 30 italics added). Thus, the land of the
Amorites was conquered. A similar fate awaited Og the king of land of Sichon Bashan,
whose land was also conquered by the Israelites. Moshe recalls: "We took
the land from the hand of the two kings of the Amorites who were on this side
of the Jordan [Ever
haYarden], from the River Arnon to Mount Hermon"
(3:8 italics added).
This was also the land requested by the tribes of Reuven, Gad, and half of Menashe, who had to meet one condition: "All you men of valor shall cross over [ta'avru] armed before your brethren, the children of
" (3:18 italics added),
in order to help them take control of the Promised Land. Moshe continues,
promising to Yehoshua: "YHVH will do to all the kingdoms through which you
pass [over]" (v. 21), what He had done to the former
In addition to the above promise, there is an even greater one (preceded by the words "Sh'ma Yisrael - Hear O Israel" in 9:1): "Therefore understand today that YHVH your Elohim is He who goes over [ha'over] before you as a consuming fire" (9:3 italics added). And moreover, "YHVH your Elohim Himself crosses over [over] before you; He will destroy these nations from before you, and you shall dispossess them. Joshua himself crosses over [over] before you, just as YHVH has said" (31:3 italic added). The "crossing over [ovrim] to possess" or "inherit" the land is also an inseparable part of the description of the Land itself, as everything about its conditions constitutes a major change-over and transition from the setting of the desert (for details see 11:10 -12).
And while Moshe was thus preparing the nation, which he had so greatly nurtured and for whom he had been willing to give up his life, he did not conceal from them and from posterity the sad fact that he had "pleaded with YHVH at that time, saying: ‘O my Adonai YHVH, You have begun to show Your servant Your greatness and Your mighty hand… I pray, let me cross over [e'ebra] and see the good land beyond [ever] the
those pleasant mountains, and .’
But YHVH was angry [va'yita'ber] with me on your account, and
would not listen to me" (3:23-26 italics added). Yes, "angry"
in this context is also made up of the root ayin, vet/bet, resh! Thus, there is
more than one way to 'cross over'. ‘Crossing over' to the 'wrong side'
and 'crossing' YHVH's will, will incur His anger (“evrah”). Lebanon
Moshe continues to relate his plight, as pronounced by YHVH: "Go up to the top of Pisgah, and lift your eyes toward the west, the north, the south, and the east; Behold it with your eyes, for you shall not cross over [ta'avor] this
But command Joshua, and encourage him and strengthen him; for he shall go
over [ya'avor] before this people…" (3: 27,28 italics added).
Just before Moshe's death on Jordan (Nebo), called here
“Avarim” (32:49) - the Mount of Crossing - he is once again
reminded by his Elohim, "I have caused you to see it [the land] with your eyes, but you shall not cross
over [ta'avor] there" (34:4 italics added). In Psalm 106:32
this story is repeated: “They angered him also at the waters of
strife, so that it went ill with Moses for their sakes [ba’a’vu’ram]”
(italics added). The singular form “(ba)avu’r,” literally means “one who has been caused
to pass over.” Thus, even a
common preposition such as “for someone’s sake” is rooted in e.v.r – i.e.
“crossing or passing over” - pointing to the centrality of this term and to an
active force, or agent, outside of one’s self who, as this preposition shows, acts
as the Prime Cause. Mount
In our text the covenant and the commandments are not 'passed over' either. In his discourse, Moshe elaborates extensively on these issues. YHVH made another covenant with the Children of Yisrael, "in the
besides the covenant which He made
with them in Horeb… that you may enter [le'ov'recha] into
covenant with YHVH your Elohim" (Deut. 29:1, 12 italics added). Thus, in “entering”
this covenant they were literally "crossing" into it. "Transgressing"
YHVH's commandments, according to 26:13 is also referred to as "crossing."
Some of these commandments are: "When a man has taken a new wife, he shall
not go out to war or be charged [ya'avor] with any business…"
(24:5 italics added), and "There shall not be found among you anyone who
makes his son or his daughter pass through [ma'avir] the
fire…" (18:10 italics added). "For this commandment which I command
you today is not too mysterious for you, nor is it far off. It is not in heaven,
that you should say, `Who will ascend into heaven for us and bring it to us, that
we may hear it and do it?' Nor is it beyond [meh’ever] the sea,
that you should say, `Who will go over [ya'avor] the sea
for us and bring it to us, that we may hear it and do it?’ But the word is very
near you, in your mouth and in your heart, that you may do it" (30:11-14
italics added). According to these words, it appears that fulfilling Elohim's
Word does not necessarily require a physical crossing or passing over; it is
simply a matter of turning inwardly, to that which had already been deposited
there by the Almighty (see Rom. 8:11). land of Moab
Finally, "And it shall be, on the day when you [plural] cross over [ta'avru] the Jordan to the land which YHVH your Elohim is giving you, that you shall set up for yourselves large stones, and whitewash them with lime. You shall write on them all the words of this law, when you have crossed over [be'ovre'cha], that you may enter the land which YHVH your Elohim is giving you, a land flowing with milk and honey, just as YHVH the Elohim of your fathers promised you. Therefore it shall be, when you [plural] have crossed over [be'ovre'chem] the
Jordan, that on
you shall set up these stones, which I command you today…" (27:2-4 italics
added). Thus, the "crossing over" is to be marked by stones that were
to be a testimony of a genuine "crossing over" and a “change over” undertaken
by the Hebrews, the 'People of Transition'! Mount Ebal
The root e.v.r, however, does not escape the enemies of Yisrael. Prior to the actual crossing, Yehoshua sent two spies to Yericho (
These two were pursued by men who themselves had to cross the Yarden’s
"fords.” These “fords” are “ma’a’barot,” literally, “that
which enables passage” (ref. Josh. 2:7). Jericho
In closing, let us pause briefly on “va’etchanan,” the name of our Parasha, which takes us back to its opening verse (3:23) where Moshe pleads with YHVH to let him cross the Yarden. “And I pleaded” or implored…” – etchanan – is of the root ch.n.
n (chet, noon, noon), which means to “show favor
or be gracious,” while “chen” (chet, noon) is “grace” (e.g. Zech. 4:7, 12:10). Thus, he who pleads with, and
implores YHVH knows he is invoking His grace, cognizant of the fact that even
the pleading itself is linked to YHVH’s compassion and favor active in the one
who is pleading with expectancy.
Note: In the synagogue, the Torah scrolls are placed in an ark called “teiva.” When the representative of the congregation who prays on their behalf stands before the ark, he too is said to be “passing [over] before the teiva.”
Hebrew Tools for Everyday Use
Many of the Hebrew words which we encounter in the Tanach are not used in Modern Hebrew, while others are still in use, but differently than in the scriptures. Let us take a look at a few of the variations of the common root ayin, bet, resh in its contemporary usage.
I am moving (away) from here
Ani o’ver mi’poh
Ani o’veret mi’poh (f.)
It is forbidden to transgress the law (literally, forbidden to transgress/pass over the law)
Asur la’avor al ha’chok
Over the sea
Parents do much for (the sake of) their children (literally, parents do much for the children theirs)
Horim osim harbeh avur haye’ladim she’la’hem
(ha’ye’ladim she’lo – children his
ha’ye’ladim she’la – children hers)