Sunday, February 16, 2014

Hebrew Insights into Parashat Va’yak'hel – Sh’mot (Exodus) - 35 - 38:20

The Parasha before us, and the subsequent one, seal off the book of Sh'mot. The two of them recapitulate the instructions for constructing the Mishkan, its utensils, the priests' garments, and also reiterate the calling of the two craftsmen who were to be in charge of the work. However, because the instructions in our text describe the actual implementation of the work, they are animated with a sense of activity. The act of contribution, for example, is fraught with enthusiasm and vitality, while everyone appears to be doing his utmost within his (or her) means and capabilities.

Just before examining these accounts, let us pause to look at yet another injunction regarding the Shabbat. In this instance it appears to be a prelude to the construction of the holy edifice, with an emphasis on keeping the Shabbat set apart by not doing any manner of work (including kindling of fire): "… everyone doing work in it shall be put to death" (ref. Ex. 35:2,3).  In all likelihood this was to serve as a reminder to the Israelites that even the building of the Mishkan did not supersede the Shabbat rest.

Va’yak’hel, “And he [Moses] gathered…” is rooted in k.h.l (kof, hey, lamed) - “to gather unto for the purpose of executing the plan.  And as we shall see shortly, a plan is definitely being set up here. In 35:10 an invitation is issued for "every wise-hearted one among you, let them come and make all which YHVH has commanded" (emphasis added). Such an open summons had not been issued previously. The People of Yisrael responded with gusto. They were both contributing (see vs. 5-9) and participating in the work itself. The camp was bustling with activity. The skilled and the unskilled, the rich and the poor, the rank and file together with the leaders – all were doing their respective parts.

Let us now simply follow the text, taking note of the activity, the mass inclusion of the entire community, and of the spirit of eager willingness and generosity that pervaded the camp. "And all the congregation of the sons of Israel went out from Moses. And they came, everyone whose heart was lifted up, and everyone whose spirit made him willing. They brought the offering of YHVH for the work of the tabernacle of the congregation, and for all its service, and for the holy garments. And the men came in together with the women, everyone willing of heart. They brought in bracelets, and nose rings, and rings, and ornaments, every gold article, and everyone who waved a wave offering of gold to YHVH. And everyone with whom blue was found, and purple, and crimson, and bleached linen, and goats' hair, and rams' skins dyed red, and dugong skins, they brought. Everyone rising up with an offering of silver and bronze, they brought the offering of YHVH; and everyone with whom was found acacia wood for any work of the service, they brought. And every wise-hearted woman spun with her hands; and they brought spun yarn, blue, and purple, and crimson and bleached linen. And all the women whose hearts were lifted up in wisdom spun the goats' hair. And the leaders brought the onyx stones and stones for the setting, for the ephod and for the breast pocket, and the spice, and the oil for the light, and for the anointing oil, and for the incense of the perfumes. And every man and woman whose hearts made them willing to bring for all the work which YHVH commanded to be done by the hand of Moses; the sons of Israel brought a willing offering to YHVH… " (35:20-29-emphases added).

It is self evident how action-packed this passage is, characterized by the willingness and eager participation of everyone involved. A similar atmosphere is also echoed in chapter 36, when Betzal'el and Ohali'av (Aholiab) and all the ones endowed with Elohim-given wisdom and a desire to do the work, take the contributions from the people: "And they took every offering before Moses which the sons of Israel had brought for the work of the service in the holy place, to do it. And they brought to him still more willing offerings morning by morning. And all the wise men came, those doing every kind of work for the sanctuary [literally “the holy-set apart work”], each one from his work they were doing"…(36:3, 4 emphases added). Here we see the co-operation between the lay people and the experts, all of whom were providing abundance of such magnitude, to the extent that Moshe was told: “The people are bringing more than enough for the service of the work that YHVH commanded to do"… (v. 5). Moshe therefore "commanded, and they caused it to be voiced in the camp, saying, 'Let neither man nor woman make any more offering for the sanctuary’ [literally, “work for the holy-set apart contribution”]; and the people were held back from bringing" (v. 6).

The wisdom, skill, and expertise with which the work was carried out clearly did not originate with the expert artisans themselves. In 35:31, 32, 34 we read: “And He has filled him [i.e. Betzal’el] with the spirit of Elohim in wisdom, in understanding, and in knowledge… to devise designs. And He has put in his heart that he may teach…” (emphases added). Betzal’el’s protégé, whom he was teaching, was Ohali’av from the tribe of Dan. Having been endowed from above with the skillfulness and ability to carry out the work, Betzal’el, true to his name, appears to be residing “in the shadow of the Almighty.”  His assistant’s name expresses a similar concept, as Ohali’av means, “my tent is the Father.” Thus, the artist engaged in crafting the Mishkan (Tabernacle), declares, by his very name, Who is the real Abode!

But let us return to the earthly Mishkan… The specifications for the Ark of the Covenant, the Table of Showbread, and the Lampstand are listed in 37:1-24. In Hebrew these three articles are “a’ronshulchan,+and=menorah,prenderedmliterally?as, cabinet/closet/chest (e.g. 2nd Kings 12:9, 10), table, and lamp” (e.g. 2nd Kings 4:10); a comfortable abode, under any circumstances, especially in the desert! But what about a washbasin for a quick freshening up and maybe a mirror to make sure every hair is in place? The account in 38:8 does not fail to point out the basin, and the mirrors out of which it was constructed. In addition, although not mentioned in the Parasha’s text specifically, there is another term used elsewhere for the Ark of the Covenant - “ki’seh” – a “chair,” which is also the Hebrew word for “throne.” The “Ark of the Covenant” is YHVH’s seat of glory, and was so described in Yisha’yahu (Isaiah) 6:1, in reference to Shlomo’s (Solomon’s) Temple, and also in Y’chezkel (Ezekiel) 43:7, regarding the future Temple.

The making of the bronze basin (or laver) and its base captivates our attention, as they were made from "the mirrors of the [women] who congregated at the opening of the Tent of Meeting" (38:8). Much has been said about the symbolism of the mirrors plating this basin, where the priests were to wash their feet and hands (that is, to consecrate themselves) before approaching the altar, as an illustration of one of the steps on the progressive path of faith taken by the Believer. However, in the scene at hand we encounter women who had assembled, “tzov'ot,” by the entrance of the Mishkan. The verb and root tz.v.a is also used for “army” and “hosts,” such as in "YHVH Tzva'ot." In Shmuel Alef (1st Samuel) 2:22 we find once again this "army of women" by "the opening of the Tent of Meeing."  T’hilim (Psalms) 68:12 says: "YHVH gave the word; great was the company - "tza'va" - of those who proclaimed [female gender] it; Kings of armies ("tzva'ot") flee, they flee, and she who remains at home divides the spoil." Last week we saw the People of Yisrael in their frenzy to make the golden calf, using gold earrings worn by their "wives, sons and daughters" (Ex. 32:2). This week, many of the same people are making contributions for the Mishkan, and some of the donations are of the very same materials that were used for the abominable image. The women who had contributed the mirrors, thereby giving up their vanity, are seen here drawn to the house of YHVH and forming a company, literally an "army," which proclaims His Word and is therefore far mightier than even that of "kings of armies" (ref. again to Ps. 68:12). Hence, according to the Psalm, their reward (or "spoil") is also far greater. Were these women motivated by a desire to repent and atone for the terrible recent sin committed so callously by the People of Yisrael?

When all was said and done, the work was considered a genuine collective endeavor of national scope. Not many years prior to this event, these same people had over them taskmasters who "worked them relentlessly" (Ex. 1:13). Now, the Nation as a whole is engaged in a totally different “work,” the “avoda” of the Mishkan, the avoda – worship and service - of YHVH. Did they ever reflect back to those dark days, considering in awe their currently changed circumstances and status?

Whether or not they did, the transformation that had taken place was quite amazing! In Egypt they were treated as a faceless mass, having suffered a loss of individual identity to the point that they were referred to in the singular person (e.g. Ex. 1:10-12, Parashat Shmot, literal translation). By comparison, in 36:8 – 37:8, the workers of the Mishkan are also described in singular person. However, against the backdrop of the preceding descriptions, the picture set before us here is entirely different. If the oft repeated “and he made” (note, this singular person may not be reflected in all the translations) is in reference to Betzal’el, he certainly had the full and active support, and participation of the People as a whole. But if the reference is to more than one person - it would signify unison. Once again, just as we observed in Parashat Trumah (26:6-11), the Mishkan itself was to be made of a great variety of components, yet was to be “one” (36:13, 18). Similarly, this was also the case with the People of Yisrael, who was (and is) to portray the eternal principle of ‘unity in diversity,’ so well illustrated in our text.

Hebrew Insights into Parashat Ki Tissa –Sh’mot (Exodus) 34 - 30:11

When you lift up ["ki tissa"] the head [singular] of the sons of Israel to be mustered, they shall each give the ransom of his soul to YHVH, in mustering them, and there shall not be a plague among them in mustering them" (Ex. 30:12, literal translation). Hundreds of years later, when King David made an attempt to conduct a census, YHVH reprimanded him heavily ("And Satan stood up against Israel and moved David to number Israel… And it was evil in the eyes of Elohim as to this thing," 1st Ch. 21:1,7). But whereas David counted (“mana” – meaning “apportion, divide, limit”) the people, YHVH asked Moshe to “lift up” the sons of Yisrael, since people are not to be numbered as a commodity. Each individual was, as it were, to be lifted up to his Maker. For a proper conduct of the census, every one between age twenty and fifty had to offer a representational half shekel as a token, called a "ransom" ("kofer," of the root k.f.r. that is "kippur," meaning “propitiation, covering”). This half shekel "atonement money" given to YHVH as a contribution ("trumah"), was then rendered "for the service of the Tent of Meeting (ohel mo'ed), " for it to "be a memorial of the sons of Israel before YHVH to make atonement for yourselves" (30:16 emphasis added). Thus the “atonement (or ransom) money” became a contribution to help in constructing of the place where these sons of Yisrael will eventually be atoned for and remembered. Interestingly, later on in the Parasha, in 34:23, we read: “Three times in the year your men shall appear before YHVH.” In Hebrew “man” or “male” is “zachar” (literally, “one who remembered”), but here the word has been modified to “za’chur,” which means “one who is remembered.”

Going back to our census, we see how it enabled further national organization to take place, while offering an opportunity for contributions to be collected for the construction of Ohel Mo’ed (“tent of meeting,” as it is referred to in this Parasha). This pragmatism, wherein the nation's practical and spiritual needs were combined, illustrates the Torah’s intrinsic and typical economic proclivity for fusing various components and aspects of life into one act or event, as seen here.

More instructions for articles and utensils, which are to make up the future Mishkan, follow. In 30:17-21, the brazen laver is mentioned, and then the instructions for making the incense and anointing oil (ref. vv. 23-25). "It shall not be poured on the flesh of man, and you shall not make any like it in its proportion; it is holy. It shall be holy to you. If a man prepares any like it, or who gives from it to a stranger, he shall be cut off from his people" (30:32, 33), is the injunction in connection with both (the oil and the incense, see also vv. 37, 38). These words may alert us to the attempts, which are not uncommon in our day and age, of ‘passing’, ‘catching,’ or even 'importing' the ‘anointing’. 

Now that all the instructions with respect to the Mishkan are in place, it becomes necessary to select the artisans to execute the work. The men selected by YHVH are Betzal'el the son of Oori, the son of Choor from Yehuda, who was filled with YHVH's Spirit, and Ohali'av the son of Achi'se'mach from the tribe of Dan. Those two were endowed with all the wisdom, understanding, knowledge and skills that it would take "to make all that I have commanded…" (ref. 31:1-6). YHVH declares, "I have called by name Betzal'el" (31:2, emphasis added), and indeed the meaning of the name is "in the shadow of the Almighty" ("beh"-"in"; "tzel"- “shadow”; “el"-"mighty"). 

Just before Moshe's return with the Torah instructions, inscribed on the tablets of the testimony "by the finger of Elohim" (31:18), attention is given once more to the Shabbat. It is to be "as a sign between Me and you, throughout your generations, that you may know that I am YHVH who sanctifies [separates/sets apart] you" (31:13). Shabbat is seen here as the seal for the "everlasting [or perpetual] covenant" (v. 16) that YHVH made with Yisrael, who, as a nation is to testify to the fact that He "made heaven and earth in six days and in the seventh He ceased and was refreshed." These instructions are preceded by one little word, "ach" (v. 13), translated, "but," “surely,” or "as for you." However, in this context it appears to mean, "whatever else you do [keep My Sabbaths]!"

All seems to be in order now. YHVH hands Moshe the stone tablets He had written, and Moshe is about to descend and deliver the Divine message to the People. Suddenly there is a shift of scene and time. At what point exactly was it that the people's restlessness and disenchantment with Moshe led them to put pressure on A'ha’ron to ease off their frustration? The answer to that remains unknown, but what our text does inform us about, is the people's firm resolve to alleviate these frustrations. "And the people saw that Moses delayed to come down from the mountain. And the people gathered to Aaron. And they said to him, 'Rise up, make for us gods who may go before our face. As for this Moses, the man who brought us up from the land of Egypt, we do not know what has become of him'" (32:1).

Several key words in this text (verses 1-6), help in unraveling this scene as it unfolds. Moshe's delay here is "boshesh," its root being "bosh" (bet, vav, shin) whose primary meaning is “shame, disgrace, to cause shame and disgrace, or embarrassment (e.g. Gen. 2:25), withering, dryness and destruction.” This verb decodes the emotions and thoughts that were plaguing the anxious Israelites. It is not difficult to envision them expressing the following sentiments:  ‘What embarrassment and shame is this man Moshe subjecting us to! His strange ways and disappearance will be our demise, and we will wither and be destroyed in this desert!’ A large crowd gathers around A'ha’ron, denoted by "(va)yika'hel," of the root k.h.l (kof, hey, lamed) which means “assembly or congregation” (compare toEx. 35:1) Thus, the assembly of Yisrael congregates around the only person whom they deem able to execute the plan that they had already formulated. To the "elohim" which they demand that A'ha’ron make for them, they refer in the plural (“make us gods, which shall go before us” 32:1), being in direct defiance of what they had heard just a little while earlier: "You shall have no other gods before Me" (Parashat Yitro, Ex. 20:3). With bitter sarcasm they refer to Moshe as "this man who brought us out of Egypt," while at the same time not only forgetting the miracles and wonders it took to extricate them out of the land of their affliction, but also avoiding any reference to YHVH Himself. "Seeing that Moshe had delayed" (32:1 italics added), they are now calling for visible gods which would "walk before their faces.” This is another contrary concept, as the individuals and the nation were to “walk before Elohim’s face,” and not the other way around. 

In an attempt to placate the crowd, A'ha’ron complies, instructing anyone wearing jewelry to "remove" their gold earrings, using, not coincidentally, the imperative form for "to tear off," which is “par'ku" (v. 2). The verb p.r.k  (pey, resh, kof) also means “to part, to rip (Ps. 7:2), to fragment, or to tear” (I Kings 19:11; Ezekiel 19:12), thus all-too accurately describing the overall condition of those who were "tearing off" their jewels to make gods for themselves!

In the process (32:4) A'ha’ron takes a stylus - che'ret (ch.r.t, chet, resh, tet), which seems to share the root with one of the words for "magicians" (such as those who operated in Egypt, e.g. Ex.8:7, 18) - "chartumin"), making up for an intriguing connection (in light of the circumstances).  With this stylus A’ha’ron formed - "(ve)yatzar" - the "molten calf" - "egel ma'seh'cha." "Formed" is of the root (yod, tzadi, resh) which goes back to "thought, imagination and contemplation" - "yetzer" - such as used in B’resheet (Genesis) 6:5, and 8:21 respectively: "Every imagination of the thoughts of his heart"; "The imagination of the heart of man is evil from his youth." It is nothing less than "evil imagination" which yields the results of this sad episode. The calf, "egel," is rooted in a.g.l (ayin, gimmel, lamed), meaning, "round or roll," referring to a young calf as it rolls, bounds or gallops. This particular calf, though, was a "ma'seh'cha," that is a molten image. "Ma'seh'cha" is also a “covering” or a “veil,” such as the "veil shrouding" found in Yishayahu (Isaiah) 25:7, and is the translation for the alliteration "ma'seh'cha nesu'cha." Thus, whereas in Parashat Mishpatim we saw that Moshe was to place the Torah in front of YHVH's chosen Nation as a mirror, here the backsliding Israelites, who are so desperate to see with their eyes (as pointed out above), actually suffer a loss of sight, as they are blindfolded by a "ma'seh'cha" (a veil) of their own making. In 34:17, in the course of the renewal of the Covenant, it is necessary to remind them once again, “You shall make no molten gods – elohey ma’she’cha.”

Continuing in chapter 32: “And they rose early on the morrow, and they offered burnt offerings and brought near peace offerings. And the people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play" (v. 6 emphasis added). The offense of the descendants of Yitz'chak (Isaac) climaxes when they act in total defiance to the severe warning, which was presented to them in Sh’mot (Exodus) 22:20 (and 34:14): "One sacrificing to gods shall be destroyed.” The verb for “play” is "(le)tza'chek" (of the root, tzadi, chet, kof - “to laugh") and is used here, implying "making sport, toying with, mocking," or "conjugal caresses" - all of which speak of the lewd debauchery in which Yitzchak’s progeny was engaged. 

YHVH discloses to the unsuspecting Moshe the gory details of what "your people whom you brought up out of Egypt" (literal translation, italics added) have done, and with that He (symbolically) charges him "to go… to descend" (32:7). The all-knowing Elohim, being aware of the fact that Moshe would beseech Him on behalf of this reproachable people, makes here a declaration (v. 10), allowing us a rare glimpse into what is otherwise an 'off limits' domain: "Leave Me alone (that My anger may glow against them, that I may consume them)" (italics added).  But Moshe's uninterrupted intercessory address (v. 11-13) does result in YHVH being "moved to pity concerning the evil which He had spoken to do to His people" (v. 14).

The language employed by verses 15 and 16 (still in 32) could not be more emphatic in recounting the preciousness of the Divinely written tablets: "… the two tablets of the testimony… tablets written on their two sides, on this and on that side they were written. And the tablets were the work of Elohim, and the writing was the writing of Elohim; it was engraved on the tablets." All this is in sharp contrast to the horrendous sight awaiting Moshe at the foot of the Mountain.

After a sad confrontation with A'ha’ron, during which the latter defends his position by making weak excuses, Moshe realizes that the People is "loosed, for Aaron had let it loose for derision among their enemies" (32: 25). The words for "loose" used here stem from "para" (p.r.a. pey/fey, resh, ayin). As we observed already in Parashat Miketz (Gen. 41-44:17), the same consonants also appear in Par'oh's name. The question that arises here is whether the meaning of this root ("unruly," "disorder") had any bearing on the meaning of the title accorded to the Egyptian monarchs (although "Par'oh," as we noted there, does have its specific and separate meaning in the Ancient Egyptian tongue).  This issue seems to be quite pertinent in this case, as the Hebrews were certainly manifesting a reversal to practices which they no doubt observed in their land of sojourning. Likewise, we have just seen a resemblance of the word denoting Egypt’s magicians to the tool used by A'ha’ron to make the calf.

The first six verses of chapter 33 describe a transitional phase, leading to the restitution of relationship between YHVH and His People. As part of the People's mourning and repentance, they remove the rest of their jewels (verse 6). Interestingly, the verb for removing the jewels is not the same as the one used above (32:2). Instead, there is the unusual usage of a word that in Shmot (Exodus) 12:36 was employed for "spoiling" (the Egyptians). The verb used here – va’yit’natzlu - shares its root ( yod, tzadi, lamed) with the verb for "deliver" (Ex. 3:8). Being used in the course of healing the breach in the relationship with the Almighty, could the usage of this term be a reminder to Yisrael of their miraculous deliverance from Egypt?     

The rest of the Parasha deals with issues relating, not surprisingly in view of the recent events, to YHVH's presence, His reverence, His revelation to Moshe, and to the renewal of the Covenant.  In mentioning Moshe's writing of the "d'varim" – “words” on the new stone tablets, the figure "ten" is cited (34:28), unlike the first mention of these “words,” where no number was specified (Parashat Yitro, Ex. chapter 20).  In this verse (28) Moshe is described as staying on the Mount, in the Presence of YHVH, for forty days during which time he wrote the tablets, abstaining from food and drink. In 24:10,11 (Parashat Mishpatim) we encountered the elders and nobles of Yisrael ‘seeing’ the Elohim of Yisrael while “eating and drinking,” just prior to Moshe’s first ascent to the Mountain. These two scenes, against the backdrop of the two contrasting circumstances, form quite an object lesson; the one foreshadowing the “Marriage Supper of the Lamb” and the time when He will dwell with His own (Rev. 19:9), while the other is signified by markings of sorrow and mourning, resulting from the sin committed by the Nation.

The variety of events crowding Parashat Ki Tissa illustrates, in microcosmic fashion, the topsy-turvy nature of Yisrael's relationship with her Elohim in years to come.  Lastly, having had the "maseh'cha" (which we discussed above) distort their spiritual sight, the Israelites cannot bear the glory which emanates from Moshe's face when he comes down from the Mountain. He is therefore obliged to cover his face with a veil ("mas'veh"). "But we [on the other hand] all with our face having been unveiled, having beheld the glory of YHVH in a mirror [the "Torah of liberty"], are being changed into the same image from glory to glory, as from YHVH, the Spirit" (2nd Cor. 3:18 italics added). Truly something to be thankful for and not to be taken lightly!

Finally, in the course of Moshe’s intercession on behalf of the People of Yisrael, YHVH says to him: “… lead [n’cheh] the people to that which I have told you…” (literal translation, 32:34). “N’cheh” is the imperative for “lead” or “guide.” Just before that, in 33:14, after a long discourse between YHVH and Moshe, the Holy One promises: “My Presence – panim - face – will go, and I will give you rest” (literal translation). “Give rest” – hani’choti – actually shares its root with “lead,” and means “leading toward a goal,” as well as being connected to “rest.” Thus, it was only YHVH’s “restful and purposeful guidance” that enabled Moshe to be the goal-oriented visionary leader that he was.